Herramientas de sánscrito

Declension of nouns ending with consonant:
Regular nouns ending with c, j, r, s and h

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Introduction Jump to top

In this chapter, we continue the discussion about the declension of nouns ending in consonant. Now, we are going to discuss the declension of regular nouns ending in palatal consonants (c and j), in r and in s. (Müller also includes the palatal consonants ch and jh, but nouns ending in those letters are so rare --there aren't even any examples of nouns ending in jh in the Monier-Williams dictionary-- that we won't spend any time on them here).

General case endings Jump to top

For the sake of convenience, we are going to repeat here the tables of endings for nouns ending in consonant that we showed you in the previous chapter:

Endings for masculine and feminine nouns ending in consonant

SingularDualPlural
NominativeNo ending auअः aḥ
VocativeGenerally like the Nominative auअः aḥ
Accusativeअम् am auअः aḥ
Instrumental āभ्याम् bhyāmभिः bhiḥ
Dative eभ्याम् bhyāmभ्यः bhyaḥ
Ablativeअः aḥभ्याम् bhyāmभ्यः bhyaḥ
Genitiveअः aḥओः oḥआम् ām
Locative iओः oḥसु su

Endings for neuter nouns ending in consonant

SingularDualPlural
NominativeNo ending ī i
VocativeNo ending ī i
AccusativeNo ending ī i
The rest is like the masculine and feminine ones

Nouns ending in c Jump to top

Nouns ending with c follow essentially the same idea of the nouns that we discussed in the previous chapter. As always, the prātipadika (crude/undeclined form) is attached to the endings given above. The following things happen1Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 67, §158:

1) The final c of the prātipadika changes to "k" in the grammatical cases with "no ending" and in the Locative plural; and it changes to "g" before endings that begin with "bh". It doesn't change before endings that begin with vowel.

2) In the neuter declension, an "ñ" is added before the final consonant of the prātipadika in the Nominative/Accusative/Vocative plural.

For example, below is the declension of the adjective jalamuc, which means "shedding water". In the tables below, we highlighted in red the part of the word that varies according to the declension:

Jalamuc (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeजलमुक् jalamukजलमुचौ jalamucauजलमुचः jalamucaḥ
Vocativeजलमुक् jalamukजलमुचौ jalamucauजलमुचः jalamucaḥ
Accusativeजलमुचम् jalamucamजलमुचौ jalamucauजलमुचः jalamucaḥ
Instrumentalजलमुचा jalamuजलमुग्भ्याम् jalamugbhyāmजलमुग्भिः jalamugbhiḥ
Dativeजलमुचे jalamuceजलमुग्भ्याम् jalamugbhyāmजलमुग्भ्यः jalamugbhyaḥ
Ablativeजलमुचः jalamucaḥजलमुग्भ्याम् jalamugbhyāmजलमुग्भ्यः jalamugbhyaḥ
Genitiveजलमुचः jalamucaḥजलमुचोः jalamucoḥजलमुचाम् jalamucām
Locativeजलमुचि jalamuciजलमुचोः jalamucoḥजलमुक्षु jalamukṣu

Jalamuc (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeजलमुक् jalamukजलमुची jalamuजलमुञ्चि jalamuñci
Vocativeजलमुक् jalamukजलमुची jalamuजलमुञ्चि jalamuñci
Accusativeजलमुक् jalamukजलमुची jalamuजलमुञ्चि jalamuñci
Instrumentalजलमुचा jalamuजलमुग्भ्याम् jalamugbhyāmजलमुग्भिः jalamugbhiḥ
Dativeजलमुचे jalamuceजलमुग्भ्याम् jalamugbhyāmजलमुग्भ्यः jalamugbhyaḥ
Ablativeजलमुचः jalamucaḥजलमुग्भ्याम् jalamugbhyāmजलमुग्भ्यः jalamugbhyaḥ
Genitiveजलमुचः jalamucaḥजलमुचोः jalamucoḥजलमुचाम् jalamucām
Locativeजलमुचि jalamuciजलमुचोः jalamucoḥजलमुक्षु jalamukṣu

Also notice that, in the Locative plural, the original ending "su" changed to "ṣu".

Nouns ending in j Jump to top

There are two kinds of nouns ending with j, which we will call Type 1 and Type 2 here. The difference between the two types is the following:

1) In Type 1 nouns --which follow the same pattern of nouns ending in c-- the final j of the prātipadika changes to "k" in the grammatical cases with "no ending" and in the Locative plural; and it changes to "g" before endings that begin with "bh".2Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 68, §161

2) In Type 2 nouns, the final j of the prātipadika changes to "ṭ" in the grammatical cases with "no ending" and in the Locative plural; and it changes to "ḍ" before endings that begin with "bh".3Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 68, §162

The rest of the rules is just like nouns ending in c: the prātipadika doesn't change before endings beginning with vowel, and, in the neuter declension, an "ñ" is added before the final consonant of the prātipadika in the Nominative/Accusative/Vocative plural.

For an example of a noun of the Type 1, below is the declension of ṛtvij, which means "sacrificing regularly". As usual, in the tables below, we highlighted in red the part of the word that varies according to the declension:

Ṛtvij (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeऋत्विक् ṛtvikऋत्विजौ ṛtvijauऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥ
Vocativeऋत्विक् ṛtvikऋत्विजौ ṛtvijauऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥ
Accusativeऋत्विजम् ṛtvijamऋत्विजौ ṛtvijauऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥ
Instrumentalऋत्विजा ṛtviऋत्विग्भ्याम् ṛtvigbhyāmऋत्विग्भिः ṛtvigbhiḥ
Dativeऋत्विजे ṛtvijeऋत्विग्भ्याम् ṛtvigbhyāmऋत्विग्भ्यः ṛtvigbhyaḥ
Ablativeऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥऋत्विग्भ्याम् ṛtvigbhyāmऋत्विग्भ्यः ṛtvigbhyaḥ
Genitiveऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥऋत्विजोः ṛtvijoḥऋत्विजाम् ṛtvijām
Locativeऋत्विजि ṛtvijiऋत्विजोः ṛtvijoḥऋत्विक्षु ṛtvikṣu

Ṛtvij (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeऋत्विक् ṛtvikऋत्विजी ṛtviऋत्विञ्जि ṛtviñji
Vocativeऋत्विक् ṛtvikऋत्विजी ṛtviऋत्विञ्जि ṛtviñji
Accusativeऋत्विक् ṛtvikऋत्विजी ṛtviऋत्विञ्जि ṛtviñji
Instrumentalऋत्विजा ṛtviऋत्विग्भ्याम् ṛtvigbhyāmऋत्विग्भिः ṛtvigbhiḥ
Dativeऋत्विजे ṛtvijeऋत्विग्भ्याम् ṛtvigbhyāmऋत्विग्भ्यः ṛtvigbhyaḥ
Ablativeऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥऋत्विग्भ्याम् ṛtvigbhyāmऋत्विग्भ्यः ṛtvigbhyaḥ
Genitiveऋत्विजः ṛtvijaḥऋत्विजोः ṛtvijoḥऋत्विजाम् ṛtvijām
Locativeऋत्विजि ṛtvijiऋत्विजोः ṛtvijoḥऋत्विक्षु ṛtvikṣu

Notice again, that, in the Locative plural, the original ending "su" changed to "ṣu".

For an example of a noun of the Type 2, below is the declension of samrāj, which means "a universal or supreme ruler":

Samrāj (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसम्राट् samrāसम्राजौ samrājauसम्राजः samrājaḥ
Vocativeसम्राट् samrāसम्राजौ samrājauसम्राजः samrājaḥ
Accusativeसम्राजम् samrājamसम्राजौ samrājauसम्राजः samrājaḥ
Instrumentalसम्राजा samrāसम्राड्भ्याम् samrāḍbhyāmसम्राड्भिः samrāḍbhiḥ
Dativeसम्राजे samrājeसम्राड्भ्याम् samrāḍbhyāmसम्राड्भ्यः samrāḍbhyaḥ
Ablativeसम्राजः samrājaḥसम्राड्भ्याम् samrāḍbhyāmसम्राड्भ्यः samrāḍbhyaḥ
Genitiveसम्राजः samrājaḥसम्राजोः samrājoḥसम्राजाम् samrājām
Locativeसम्राजि samrājiसम्राजोः samrājoḥसम्राट्सु samrāṭsu (or) सम्राट्त्सु samrāṭtsu

Notice that, in the declension of samrāj, there is an additional optional form samrāṭtsu for the Locative plural. Müller explains this optional form by referring to a Sandhi rule that says:"A final before s must remain unchanged, and t may be inserted" 4Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 29, §76.In the Locative plural form samrāṭsu, we have a final before s. Therefore, this Sandhi rule applies, and t may be inserted (between the and the s), producing samrāṭtsu.

Another example of a Type 2 noun is vibhrāj ("shining"). Click here to see the declension tables of vibhrāj.

Nouns ending in r Jump to top

Nouns ending with r are declined as follows: the prātipadika is added to the endings given in the beginning of this chapter, and5Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 70, §164:

1) If there are vowels i and u before the r, they are lengthened (i becomes ī and u becomes ū) in the cases with "no ending" and in the cases where the ending begins with a consonant.

2) In the Locative plural, the original ending "su" changes to "ṣu".

Also, notice that in the cases with "no ending", the final "r" of the prātipadika changes to "ḥ" according to the 1st Rule of Visarga Sandhi.

For example, below are the declensions of the feminine noun gir ("voice"), the feminine noun pur ("town") and the neuter noun vār ("water"). The endings are highlighted in red:

Gir (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeगीः gīḥगिरौ girauगिरः giraḥ
Vocativeगीः gīḥगिरौ girauगिरः giraḥ
Accusativeगिरम् giramगिरौ girauगिरः giraḥ
Instrumentalगिरा girāगीर्भ्याम् gīrbhyāmगीर्भिः gīrbhiḥ
Dativeगिरे gireगीर्भ्याम् gīrbhyāmगीर्भ्यः gīrbhyaḥ
Ablativeगिरः giraḥगीर्भ्याम् gīrbhyāmगीर्भ्यः gīrbhyaḥ
Genitiveगिरः giraḥगिरोः giroḥगिराम् girām
Locativeगिरि giriगिरोः giroḥगीर्षु gīrṣu

Pur (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeपूः pūḥपुरौ purauपुरः puraḥ
Vocativeपूः pūḥपुरौ purauपुरः puraḥ
Accusativeपुरम् puramपुरौ purauपुरः puraḥ
Instrumentalपुरा purāपूर्भ्याम् pūrbhyāmपूर्भिः pūrbhiḥ
Dativeपुरे pureपूर्भ्याम् pūrbhyāmपूर्भ्यः pūrbhyaḥ
Ablativeपुरः puraḥपूर्भ्याम् pūrbhyāmपूर्भ्यः pūrbhyaḥ
Genitiveपुरः puraḥपुरोः puroḥपुराम् purām
Locativeपुरि puriपुरोः puroḥपूर्षु pūrṣu

Vār (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeवाः vāḥवारी vārīवारि vāri
Vocativeवाः vāḥवारी vārīवारि vāri
Accusativeवाः vāḥवारी vārīवारि vāri
Instrumentalवारा vārāवार्भ्याम् vārbhyāmवार्भिः vārbhiḥ
Dativeवारे vāreवार्भ्याम् vārbhyāmवार्भ्यः vārbhyaḥ
Ablativeवारः vāraḥवार्भ्याम् vārbhyāmवार्भ्यः vārbhyaḥ
Genitiveवारः vāraḥवारोः vāroḥवाराम् vārām
Locativeवारि vāriवारोः vāroḥवार्षु vārṣu

Regular nouns ending in s Jump to top

Nouns ending with s have various rules and various exceptions. Here, we are going to talk about two kinds of nouns ending with s: the first kind will be nouns ending with as, is and us6Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 71, §165, and the second kind will be nouns ending with "radical s" 7Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 74, §170.

Regular nouns ending in as, is and us Jump to top

To illustrate the declension pattern of nouns ending with as, is and us, below are the declension tables of sumanas ("well-minded"), sujyotis ("having a good light") and sucakṣus ("having beautiful eyes"). In the tables below, we highlighted in red the part of the word that changes due to declension:

Sumanas (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुमनाः sumanāḥसुमनसौ sumanasauसुमनसः sumanasaḥ
Vocativeसुमनः sumanaḥसुमनसौ sumanasauसुमनसः sumanasaḥ
Accusativeसुमनसम् sumanasamसुमनसौ sumanasauसुमनसः sumanasaḥ
Instrumentalसुमनसा sumanasāसुमनोभ्याम् sumanobhyāmसुमनोभिः sumanobhiḥ
Dativeसुमनसे sumanaseसुमनोभ्याम् sumanobhyāmसुमनोभ्यः sumanobhyaḥ
Ablativeसुमनसः sumanasaḥसुमनोभ्याम् sumanobhyāmसुमनोभ्यः sumanobhyaḥ
Genitiveसुमनसः sumanasaḥसुमनसोः sumanasoḥसुमनसाम् sumanasām
Locativeसुमनसि sumanasiसुमनसोः sumanasoḥसुमनःसु sumanaḥsu (or) सुमनस्सु sumanassu

Sumanas (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुमनः sumanaḥसुमनसी sumanasīसुमनांसि sumanāṁsi
Vocativeसुमनः sumanaḥसुमनसी sumanasīसुमनांसि sumanāṁsi
Accusativeसुमनः sumanaḥसुमनसी sumanasīसुमनांसि sumanāṁsi
Instrumentalसुमनसा sumanasāसुमनोभ्याम् sumanobhyāmसुमनोभिः sumanobhiḥ
Dativeसुमनसे sumanaseसुमनोभ्याम् sumanobhyāmसुमनोभ्यः sumanobhyaḥ
Ablativeसुमनसः sumanasaḥसुमनोभ्याम् sumanobhyāmसुमनोभ्यः sumanobhyaḥ
Genitiveसुमनसः sumanasaḥसुमनसोः sumanasoḥसुमनसाम् sumanasām
Locativeसुमनसि sumanasiसुमनसोः sumanasoḥसुमनःसु sumanaḥsu (or) सुमनस्सु sumanassu

Sujyotis (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुज्योतिः sujyotiḥसुज्योतिषौ sujyotiṣauसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥ
Vocativeसुज्योतिः sujyotiḥसुज्योतिषौ sujyotiṣauसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥ
Accusativeसुज्योतिषम् sujyotiṣamसुज्योतिषौ sujyotiṣauसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥ
Instrumentalसुज्योतिषा sujyotiṣāसुज्योतिर्भ्याम् sujyotirbhyāmसुज्योतिर्भिः sujyotirbhiḥ
Dativeसुज्योतिषे sujyotiṣeसुज्योतिर्भ्याम् sujyotirbhyāmसुज्योतिर्भ्यः sujyotirbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥसुज्योतिर्भ्याम् sujyotirbhyāmसुज्योतिर्भ्यः sujyotirbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥसुज्योतिषोः sujyotiṣoḥसुज्योतिषाम् sujyotiṣām
Locativeसुज्योतिषि sujyotiṣiसुज्योतिषोः sujyotiṣoḥसुज्योतिःषु sujyotiḥṣu (or) सुज्योतिष्षु sujyotiṣṣu

Sujyotis (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुज्योतिः sujyotiḥसुज्योतिषी sujyotiṣīसुज्योतींषि sujyotīṁṣi
Vocativeसुज्योतिः sujyotiḥसुज्योतिषी sujyotiṣīसुज्योतींषि sujyotīṁṣi
Accusativeसुज्योतिः sujyotiḥसुज्योतिषी sujyotiṣīसुज्योतींषि sujyotīṁṣi
Instrumentalसुज्योतिषा sujyotiṣāसुज्योतिर्भ्याम् sujyotirbhyāmसुज्योतिर्भिः sujyotirbhiḥ
Dativeसुज्योतिषे sujyotiṣeसुज्योतिर्भ्याम् sujyotirbhyāmसुज्योतिर्भ्यः sujyotirbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥसुज्योतिर्भ्याम् sujyotirbhyāmसुज्योतिर्भ्यः sujyotirbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुज्योतिषः sujyotiṣaḥसुज्योतिषोः sujyotiṣoḥसुज्योतिषाम् sujyotiṣām
Locativeसुज्योतिषि sujyotiṣiसुज्योतिषोः sujyotiṣoḥसुज्योतिःषु sujyotiḥṣu (or) सुज्योतिष्षु sujyotiṣṣu

Sucakṣus (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुचक्षुः sucakṣuḥसुचक्षुषौ sucakṣuṣauसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥ
Vocativeसुचक्षुः sucakṣuḥसुचक्षुषौ sucakṣuṣauसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥ
Accusativeसुचक्षुषम् sucakṣuṣamसुचक्षुषौ sucakṣuṣauसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥ
Instrumentalसुचक्षुषा sucakṣuṣāसुचक्षुर्भ्याम् sucakṣurbhyāmसुचक्षुर्भिः sucakṣurbhiḥ
Dativeसुचक्षुषे sucakṣuṣeसुचक्षुर्भ्याम् sucakṣurbhyāmसुचक्षुर्भ्यः sucakṣurbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥसुचक्षुर्भ्याम् sucakṣurbhyāmसुचक्षुर्भ्यः sucakṣurbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥसुचक्षुषोः sucakṣuṣoḥसुचक्षुषाम् sucakṣuṣām
Locativeसुचक्षुषि sucakṣuṣiसुचक्षुषोः sucakṣuṣoḥसुचक्षुःषु sucakṣuḥṣu (or) सुचक्षुष्षु sucakṣuṣṣu

Sucakṣus (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुचक्षुः sucakṣuḥसुचक्षुषी sucakṣuṣīसुचक्षूंषि sucakṣūṁṣi
Vocativeसुचक्षुः sucakṣuḥसुचक्षुषी sucakṣuṣīसुचक्षूंषि sucakṣūṁṣi
Accusativeसुचक्षुः sucakṣuḥसुचक्षुषी sucakṣuṣīसुचक्षूंषि sucakṣūṁṣi
Instrumentalसुचक्षुषा sucakṣuṣāसुचक्षुर्भ्याम् sucakṣurbhyāmसुचक्षुर्भिः sucakṣurbhiḥ
Dativeसुचक्षुषे sucakṣuṣeसुचक्षुर्भ्याम् sucakṣurbhyāmसुचक्षुर्भ्यः sucakṣurbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥसुचक्षुर्भ्याम् sucakṣurbhyāmसुचक्षुर्भ्यः sucakṣurbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुचक्षुषः sucakṣuṣaḥसुचक्षुषोः sucakṣuṣoḥसुचक्षुषाम् sucakṣuṣām
Locativeसुचक्षुषि sucakṣuṣiसुचक्षुषोः sucakṣuṣoḥसुचक्षुःषु sucakṣuḥṣu (or) सुचक्षुष्षु sucakṣuṣṣu

As you can see above, there are several changes to the prātipadika when it is attached to the endings. The changes are the following:

1) In cases with "no ending", final "as" becomes aḥ, except in the masculine and feminine Nominative singular, where it becomes āḥ.

2) The final "is" and "us" of the prātipadika followed by endings beginning with vowel are changed respectively to iṣ and uṣ.

3) In cases where the ending begins with "bh", "as" becomes "o"; and "is" and "us" become respectively "ir" and "ur".

4) In the Locative plural, "as" becomes "as" or "aḥ"; "is" becomes "iḥ" or "iṣ"; and "us" becomes uḥ or uṣ.

5) In the neuter nouns, in the Nominative/Accusative/Vocative plural, the final "as", "is" or "us" of the prātipadika becomes āṁs, īṁs or ūṁs, respectively.

Another example of a noun ending in "as" is chandas, which means "metre" or "metric science". Click here to see the declension table of chandas.

Nouns ending with "radical s" Jump to top

Nouns ending with "radical s" are compound nouns whose last member is a verbal root that ends with s. For example:

Supis means "well-walking" and is formed from "su", meaning "well", and "pis", which is a verb and means "to walk".

Sutus means "well-sounding" and is formed from "su", meaning "well", and "tus", which is a verb and means "to sound".

To illustrate the declension pattern of nouns ending with "radical s", below are their declensions of supis and sutus:

Supis (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुपीः supīḥसुपिसौ supisauसुपिसः supisaḥ
Vocativeसुपिः supiḥसुपिसौ supisauसुपिसः supisaḥ
Accusativeसुपिसम् supisamसुपिसौ supisauसुपिसः supisaḥ
Instrumentalसुपिसा supisāसुपीर्भ्याम् supīrbhyāmसुपीर्भिः supīrbhiḥ
Dativeसुपिसे supiseसुपीर्भ्याम् supīrbhyāmसुपीर्भ्यः supīrbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुपिसः supisaḥसुपीर्भ्याम् supīrbhyāmसुपीर्भ्यः supīrbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुपिसः supisaḥसुपिसोः supisoḥसुपिसाम् supisām
Locativeसुपिसि supisiसुपिसोः supisoḥसुपीःषु supīḥṣu (or) सुपीष्सु supīṣsu

Supis (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुपीः supīḥसुपिसी supisīसुपिंषि supiṁṣi
Vocativeसुपिः supiḥसुपिसी supisīसुपिंषि supiṁṣi
Accusativeसुपिः supiḥसुपिसी supisīसुपिंषि supiṁṣi
Instrumentalसुपिसा supisāसुपीर्भ्याम् supīrbhyāmसुपीर्भिः supīrbhiḥ
Dativeसुपिसे supiseसुपीर्भ्याम् supīrbhyāmसुपीर्भ्यः supīrbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुपिसः supisaḥसुपीर्भ्याम् supīrbhyāmसुपीर्भ्यः supīrbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुपिसः supisaḥसुपिसोः supisoḥसुपिसाम् supisām
Locativeसुपिसि supisiसुपिसोः supisoḥसुपीःषु supīḥṣu (or) सुपीष्षु supīṣṣu

Sutus (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुतूः sutūḥसुतुसौ sutusauसुतुसः sutusaḥ
Vocativeसुतुः sutuḥसुतुसौ sutusauसुतुसः sutusaḥ
Accusativeसुतुसम् sutusamसुतुसौ sutusauसुतुसः sutusaḥ
Instrumentalसुतुसा sutusāसुतूर्भ्याम् sutūrbhyāmसुतूर्भिः sutūrbhiḥ
Dativeसुतुसे sutuseसुतूर्भ्याम् sutūrbhyāmसुतूर्भ्यः sutūrbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुतुसः sutusaḥसुतूर्भ्याम् sutūrbhyāmसुतूर्भ्यः sutūrbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुतुसः sutusaḥसुतुसोः sutusoḥसुतुसाम् sutusām
Locativeसुतुसि sutusiसुतुसोः sutusoḥसुतूःषु sutūḥṣu (or) सुतूष्सु sutūṣsu

Sutus (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुतूः sutūḥसुतुसी sutusīसुतुंषि sutuṁṣi
Vocativeसुतुः sutuḥसुतुसी sutusīसुतुंषि sutuṁṣi
Accusativeसुतुः sutuḥसुतुसी sutusīसुतुंषि sutuṁṣi
Instrumentalसुतुसा sutusāसुतूर्भ्याम् sutūrbhyāmसुतूर्भिः sutūrbhiḥ
Dativeसुतुसे sutuseसुतूर्भ्याम् sutūrbhyāmसुतूर्भ्यः sutūrbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुतुसः sutusaḥसुतूर्भ्याम् sutūrbhyāmसुतूर्भ्यः sutūrbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुतुसः sutusaḥसुतुसोः sutusoḥसुतुसाम् sutusām
Locativeसुतुसि sutusiसुतुसोः sutusoḥसुतूःषु sutūḥṣu (or) सुतूष्षु sutūṣṣu

If you compare the declensions above with the declensions of nouns ending with is and us (like sujyotis and sucakṣus), there are the following differences:

1) The final "is" and "us" of the prātipadika followed by endings beginning with vowel are not changed.

2) The last "i" and "u" of the prātipadika become respectively "ī" and "ū" before all endings that begin with consonant.

3) In the neuter nouns, in the Nominative/Accusative/Vocative plural, the final "as", "is" or "us" of the prātipadika becomes aṁs, iṁs or uṁs, respectively.

Regular nouns ending in h Jump to top

Most nouns ending with h change the h to in the cases with "no ending" and in the Locative plural, and to before endings that begin with "bh" 8Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 78, §174. Also, in the Nominative/Accusative/Vocative of the neuter declension, they add the nasal before the final "h" of the prātipadika.

For example, the bases lih (meaning "licking") and guh (meaning "a hiding place"):

Lih (masculine and feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeलिट् liलिहौ lihauलिहः lihaḥ
Vocativeलिट् liलिहौ lihauलिहः lihaḥ
Accusativeलिहम् lihamलिहौ lihauलिहः lihaḥ
Instrumentalलिहा liलिड्भ्याम् liḍbhyāmलिड्भिः liḍbhiḥ
Dativeलिहे liheलिड्भ्याम् liḍbhyāmलिड्भ्यः liḍbhyaḥ
Ablativeलिहः lihaḥलिड्भ्याम् liḍbhyāmलिड्भ्यः liḍbhyaḥ
Genitiveलिहः lihaḥलिहोः lihoḥलिहाम् lihām
Locativeलिहि lihiलिहोः lihoḥलिट्सु liṭsu (or) लिट्त्सु liṭtsu

Lih (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeलिट् liलिही liलिंहि liṁhi
Vocativeलिट् liलिही liलिंहि liṁhi
Accusativeलिट् liलिही liलिंहि liṁhi
Instrumentalलिहा liलिड्भ्याम् liḍbhyāmलिड्भिः liḍbhiḥ
Dativeलिहे liheलिड्भ्याम् liḍbhyāmलिड्भ्यः liḍbhyaḥ
Ablativeलिहः lihaḥलिड्भ्याम् liḍbhyāmलिड्भ्यः liḍbhyaḥ
Genitiveलिहः lihaḥलिहोः lihoḥलिहाम् lihām
Locativeलिहि lihiलिहोः lihoḥलिट्सु liṭsu (or) लिट्त्सु liṭtsu

Guh (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeघुट् ghuगुहौ guhauगुहः guhaḥ
Vocativeघुट् ghuगुहौ guhauगुहः guhaḥ
Accusativeगुहम् guhamगुहौ guhauगुहः guhaḥ
Instrumentalगुहा guघुड्भ्याम् ghuḍbhyāmघुड्भिः ghuḍbhiḥ
Dativeगुहे guheघुड्भ्याम् ghuḍbhyāmघुड्भ्यः ghuḍbhyaḥ
Ablativeगुहः guhaḥघुड्भ्याम् ghuḍbhyāmघुड्भ्यः ghuḍbhyaḥ
Genitiveगुहः guhaḥगुहोः guhoḥगुहाम् guhām
Locativeगुहि guhiगुहोः guhoḥघुट्सु ghuṭsu (or) घुट्त्सु ghuṭtsu

There are two additional things to notice in the declensions that we just showed:

1) Notice that, in the declension of guh, the initial "g" becomes aspirated (that is, it becomes "gh") in the cases with "no ending" (Nominative/Vocative singular) and in the Locative plural. If you go back to the previous chapter, in the section named "Nouns that undergo aspiration throwback", you will find an explanation of why that happens.

2) Notice again that, in the declension tables of lih and guh, there are additional optional forms liṭtsu and ghuṭtsu for the Locative plural. This is the same situation that was explained in the declension of samrāj, in the section about "Nouns ending with j" in this chapter. The same Sandhi rule that we quoted in that section applies here:"A final before s must remain unchanged, and t may be inserted".

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