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Declension of nouns ending with vowel:
Irregular nouns ending with vowel

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Introduction Jump to top

In this chapter, we will show you the declension tables of a few irregular nouns that end with vowel. By irregular nouns, we mean nouns that don't completely follow the regular declension patterns that we covered in the previous chapters. In other words, they are exceptions to the general declension rules that we have already mentioned.

Nouns ending with ī Jump to top

Lakṣmī Jump to top

The noun lakṣmī differs from the regular declension pattern of normal feminine nouns ending in ī (like nadī) only in the Nominative singular, where a Visarga () is added to the ending1Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 104, §225.

Below, the declension of lakṣmī is shown alongside the one of nadī, for comparison:

Lakṣmī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeलक्ष्मीः lakṣmīḥलक्ष्म्यौ lakṣmyauलक्ष्म्यः lakṣmyaḥ
Vocativeलक्ष्मि lakṣmiलक्ष्म्यौ lakṣmyauलक्ष्म्यः lakṣmyaḥ
Accusativeलक्ष्मीम् lakṣmīmलक्ष्म्यौ lakṣmyauलक्ष्मीः lakṣmīḥ
Instrumentalलक्ष्म्या lakṣmलक्ष्मीभ्याम् lakṣmībhyāmलक्ष्मीभिः lakṣmībhiḥ
Dativeलक्ष्म्यै lakṣmyaiलक्ष्मीभ्याम् lakṣmībhyāmलक्ष्मीभ्यः lakṣmībhyaḥ
Ablativeलक्ष्म्याः lakṣmyāḥलक्ष्मीभ्याम् lakṣmībhyāmलक्ष्मीभ्यः lakṣmībhyaḥ
Genitiveलक्ष्म्याः lakṣmyāḥलक्ष्म्योः lakṣmyoḥलक्ष्मीणाम् lakṣmīṇām
Locativeलक्ष्म्याम् lakṣmyāmलक्ष्म्योः lakṣmyoḥलक्ष्मीषु lakṣmīṣu

Nadī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeनदी nadīनद्यौ nadyauनद्यः nadyaḥ
Vocativeनदि nadiनद्यौ nadyauनद्यः nadyaḥ
Accusativeनदीम् nadīmनद्यौ nadyauनदीः nadīḥ
Instrumentalनद्या nadनदीभ्याम् nadībhyāmनदीभिः nadībhiḥ
Dativeनद्यै nadyaiनदीभ्याम् nadībhyāmनदीभ्यः nadībhyaḥ
Ablativeनद्याः nadyāḥनदीभ्याम् nadībhyāmनदीभ्यः nadībhyaḥ
Genitiveनद्याः nadyāḥनद्योः nadyoḥनदीनाम् nadīnām
Locativeनद्याम् nadyāmनद्योः nadyoḥनदीषु nadīṣu

Strī Jump to top

The noun strī, meaning "woman", is declined similarly to the regular declension pattern of normal feminine nouns ending in ī (like nadī), except for two differences2Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 108, §228. The first difference is that, in some cases, it adds an "i" between the stem and the ending to avoid the accumulation of four consonants ("stry"); for example, the Instrumental singular is striyā, and not stryā. The second difference is that there are two additional optional forms: striyam for the Accusative singular and striyaḥ for the Accusative plural.

Strī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeस्त्री strīस्त्रियौ striyauस्त्रियः striyaḥ
Vocativeस्त्रि striस्त्रियौ striyauस्त्रियः striyaḥ
Accusativeस्त्रीम् strīm (or) स्त्रियम् striyamस्त्रियौ striyauस्त्रीः strīḥ (or) स्त्रियः striyaḥ
Instrumentalस्त्रिया striyāस्त्रीभ्याम् strībhyāmस्त्रीभिः strībhiḥ
Dativeस्त्रियै striyaiस्त्रीभ्याम् strībhyāmस्त्रीभ्यः strībhyaḥ
Ablativeस्त्रियाः striyāḥस्त्रीभ्याम् strībhyāmस्त्रीभ्यः strībhyaḥ
Genitiveस्त्रियाः striyāḥस्त्रियोः striyoḥस्त्रीणाम् strīṇām
Locativeस्त्रियाम् striyāmस्त्रियोः striyoḥस्त्रीषु strīṣu

Nouns ending with i and u Jump to top

Sakhi Jump to top

Sakhi, meaning "friend", follows a declension pattern of its own3Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 111, §232:

Sakhi (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसखा sakhāसखायौ sakhāyauसखायः sakhāyaḥ
Vocativeसखे sakheसखायौ sakhāyauसखायः sakhāyaḥ
Accusativeसखायम् sakhāyamसखायौ sakhāyauसखीन् sakhīn
Instrumentalसख्या sakhसखिभ्याम् sakhibhyāmसखिभिः sakhibhiḥ
Dativeसख्ये sakhyeसखिभ्याम् sakhibhyāmसखिभ्यः sakhibhyaḥ
Ablativeसख्युः sakhyuḥसखिभ्याम् sakhibhyāmसखिभ्यः sakhibhyaḥ
Genitiveसख्युः sakhyuḥसख्योः sakhyoḥसखीनाम् sakhīnām
Locativeसख्यौ sakhyauसख्योः sakhyoḥसखिषु sakhiṣu

Compound nouns where sakhi is the last member, like, for example, susakhi (which means "good friend"), follow another irregular declension pattern, different from the one for sakhi (the differences are in the Instrumental/Dative/Ablative/Genitive/Locative singular). Below is the declension of susakhi:

Susakhi (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुसखा susakhāसुसखायौ susakhāyauसुसखायः susakhāyaḥ
Vocativeसुसखे susakheसुसखायौ susakhāyauसुसखायः susakhāyaḥ
Accusativeसुसखायम् susakhāyamसुसखायौ susakhāyauसुसखीन् susakhīn
Instrumentalसुसखिना susakhināसुसखिभ्याम् susakhibhyāmसुसखिभिः susakhibhiḥ
Dativeसुसखये susakhayeसुसखिभ्याम् susakhibhyāmसुसखिभ्यः susakhibhyaḥ
Ablativeसुसखेः susakheḥसुसखिभ्याम् susakhibhyāmसुसखिभ्यः susakhibhyaḥ
Genitiveसुसखेः susakheḥसुसख्योः susakhyoḥसुसखीनाम् susakhīnām
Locativeसुसखौ susakhauसुसख्योः susakhyoḥसुसखिषु susakhiṣu

Pati Jump to top

The word pati, meaning "lord", is irregular4Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 112, §233:

Pati (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeपतिः patiḥपती patīपतयः patayaḥ
Vocativeपते pateपती patīपतयः patayaḥ
Accusativeपतिम् patimपती patīपतीन् patīn
Instrumentalपत्या patपतिभ्याम् patibhyāmपतिभिः patibhiḥ
Dativeपत्ये patyeपतिभ्याम् patibhyāmपतिभ्यः patibhyaḥ
Ablativeपत्युः patyuḥपतिभ्याम् patibhyāmपतिभ्यः patibhyaḥ
Genitiveपत्युः patyuḥपत्योः patyoḥपतीनाम् patīnām
Locativeपत्यौ patyauपत्योः patyoḥपतिषु patiṣu

On the other hand, compound nouns where pati is the last member, like, for example, the masculine noun bhūpati (which means "lord of the earth"), follow the regular declension pattern for masculine nouns ending in i, like kavi.

The neuter nouns asthi, dadhi, sakthi and akṣi Jump to top

The table of endings for the neuter nouns asthi ("bone"), dadhi ("curds"), sakthi ("thigh") and akṣi ("eye") is slightly different from the one for the regular neuter nouns ending in i5Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 112, §234. For example, below is the declension of asthi:

Asthi (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअस्थि asthiअस्थिनी asthinīअस्थीनि asthīni
Vocativeअस्थे asthe (or) अस्थि asthiअस्थिनी asthinīअस्थीनि asthīni
Accusativeअस्थि asthiअस्थिनी asthinīअस्थीनि asthīni
Instrumentalअस्थ्ना asthअस्थिभ्याम् asthibhyāmअस्थिभिः asthibhiḥ
Dativeअस्थ्ने asthneअस्थिभ्याम् asthibhyāmअस्थिभ्यः asthibhyaḥ
Ablativeअस्थ्नः asthnaḥअस्थिभ्याम् asthibhyāmअस्थिभ्यः asthibhyaḥ
Genitiveअस्थ्नः asthnaḥअस्थ्नोः asthnoḥअस्थ्नाम् asthnām
Locativeअस्थ्नि asthni (or) अस्थनि asthaniअस्थ्नोः asthnoḥअस्थिषु asthiṣu

The declensions of dadhi and sakthi follow the exact same pattern; in order to decline them, just replace "asth" in the above table with "dadh" or "sakth", depending on which of the nouns you want to decline.

Akṣi also follows the same pattern, but with the detail that some endings will undergo slight changes due to a Sandhi rule. Below is the declension of akṣi. In the cases marked with *, the "n" of the ending changed to "" due to the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi:

Akṣi (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअक्षि akṣiअक्षिणी akṣiṇī*अक्षीणि akṣīṇi*
Vocativeअक्षे akṣe (or) अक्षि akṣiअक्षिणी akṣiṇī*अक्षीणि akṣīṇi*
Accusativeअक्षि akṣiअक्षिणी akṣiṇī*अक्षीणि akṣīṇi*
Instrumentalअक्ष्णा akṣṇā*अक्षिभ्याम् akṣibhyāmअक्षिभिः akṣibhiḥ
Dativeअक्ष्णे akṣṇe*अक्षिभ्याम् akṣibhyāmअक्षिभ्यः akṣibhyaḥ
Ablativeअक्ष्णः akṣṇaḥ*अक्षिभ्याम् akṣibhyāmअक्षिभ्यः akṣibhyaḥ
Genitiveअक्ष्णः akṣṇaḥ*अक्ष्णोः akṣṇoḥ*अक्ष्णाम् akṣṇām*
Locativeअक्ष्णि akṣṇi* (or) अक्षणि akṣaṇi*अक्ष्णोः akṣṇoḥ*अक्षिषु akṣiṣu

Kroṣṭu Jump to top

Kroṣṭu, meaning "jackal", is declined irregularly5Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 113, §236:

Kroṣṭu (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeक्रोष्टा kroṣṭāक्रोष्टारौ kroṣṭārauक्रोष्टारः kroṣṭāraḥ
Vocativeक्रोष्टो kroṣṭoक्रोष्टारौ kroṣṭārauक्रोष्टारः kroṣṭāraḥ
Accusativeक्रोष्टारम् kroṣṭāramक्रोष्टारौ kroṣṭārauक्रोष्टून् kroṣṭūn
Instrumentalक्रोष्टुना kroṣṭunā (or) क्रोष्ट्रा kroṣṭक्रोष्टुभ्याम् kroṣṭubhyāmक्रोष्टुभिः kroṣṭubhiḥ
Dativeक्रोष्टवे kroṣṭave (or) क्रोष्ट्रे kroṣṭreक्रोष्टुभ्याम् kroṣṭubhyāmक्रोष्टुभ्यः kroṣṭubhyaḥ
Ablativeक्रोष्टोः kroṣṭoḥ (or) क्रोष्टुः kroṣṭuḥक्रोष्टुभ्याम् kroṣṭubhyāmक्रोष्टुभ्यः kroṣṭubhyaḥ
Genitiveक्रोष्टोः kroṣṭoḥ (or) क्रोष्टुः kroṣṭuḥक्रोष्ट्वोः kroṣṭvoḥ (or) क्रोष्ट्रोः kroṣṭroḥक्रोष्टूनाम् kroṣṭūnām
Locativeक्रोष्टौ kroṣṭau (or) क्रोष्टरि kroṣṭariक्रोष्ट्वोः kroṣṭvoḥ (or) क्रोष्ट्रोः kroṣṭroḥक्रोष्टुषु kroṣṭuṣu

Nouns ending with Jump to top

Nṛ Jump to top

The noun nṛ, meaning "man", is declined regularly like pitṛ, except in the Genitive plural, where it can be either nṛṇām or nṝṇām6Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 114, §237:

Nṛ (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeना nāनरौ narauनरः naraḥ
Vocativeनः naḥनरौ narauनरः naraḥ
Accusativeनरम् naramनरौ narauनॄन् nṝn
Instrumentalन्रा nनृभ्याम् nṛbhyāmनृभिः nṛbhiḥ
Dativeन्रे nreनृभ्याम् nṛbhyāmनृभ्यः nṛbhyaḥ
Ablativeनुः nuḥनृभ्याम् nṛbhyāmनृभ्यः nṛbhyaḥ
Genitiveनुः nuḥन्रोः nroḥनृणाम् nṛṇām (or) नॄणाम् nṝṇām
Locativeनरि nariन्रोः nroḥनृषु nṛṣu

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