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Declension of nouns ending with vowel:
Regular nouns ending with ī and ū

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Introduction Jump to top

In this chapter, we will cover the declension of regular nouns ending with ī and ū. Just like the ones ending in i and u, the declension rules for nouns ending in ī are basically analogous (very similar) to the ones for nouns ending in ū; so, we will show you them together.

Normal feminine bases in ī and ū Jump to top

By far, the most common kind of nouns ending in ī and ū are feminine nouns which we are calling "normal" here. These are "primitive" feminine nouns, like nadī (meaning "river") and vadhū (meaning "wife")1Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 104, §225. Also, many nouns and adjectives form their feminine version by adding ī to the masculine stem (for example, gurvī is the feminine version of guru, and devī is the feminine version of deva): such nouns and adjectives also fall into this category.

These words are declined according to the following tables of endings (we show the tables for ī and ū in pair):

Endings for feminine nouns ending in ī

SingularDualPlural
Nominative īयौ yauयः yaḥ
Vocative iयौ yauयः yaḥ
Accusativeईम् īmयौ yauईः īḥ
Instrumentalया ईभ्याम् ībhyāmईभिः ībhiḥ
Dativeयै yaiईभ्याम् ībhyāmईभ्यः ībhyaḥ
Ablativeयाः yāḥईभ्याम् ībhyāmईभ्यः ībhyaḥ
Genitiveयाः yāḥयोः yoḥईनाम् īnām
Locativeयाम् yāmयोः yoḥईषु īṣu

Endings for feminine nouns ending in ū

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeऊः ūḥवौ vauवः vaḥ
Vocative uवौ vauवः vaḥ
Accusativeऊम् ūmवौ vauऊः ūḥ
Instrumentalवा ऊभ्याम् ūbhyāmऊभिः ūbhiḥ
Dativeवै vaiऊभ्याम् ūbhyāmऊभ्यः ūbhyaḥ
Ablativeवाः vāḥऊभ्याम् ūbhyāmऊभ्यः ūbhyaḥ
Genitiveवाः vāḥवोः voḥऊनाम् ūnām
Locativeवाम् vāmवोः voḥउषु uṣu

Two examples of "normal" feminine nouns ending in ī and ū are nadī (meaning "river") and vadhū (meaning "wife"):

Nadī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeनदी nadīनद्यौ nadyauनद्यः nadyaḥ
Vocativeनदि nadiनद्यौ nadyauनद्यः nadyaḥ
Accusativeनदीम् nadīmनद्यौ nadyauनदीः nadīḥ
Instrumentalनद्या nadनदीभ्याम् nadībhyāmनदीभिः nadībhiḥ
Dativeनद्यै nadyaiनदीभ्याम् nadībhyāmनदीभ्यः nadībhyaḥ
Ablativeनद्याः nadyāḥनदीभ्याम् nadībhyāmनदीभ्यः nadībhyaḥ
Genitiveनद्याः nadyāḥनद्योः nadyoḥनदीनाम् nadīnām
Locativeनद्याम् nadyāmनद्योः nadyoḥनदीषु nadīṣu

Vadhū (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeवधूः vadhūḥवध्वौ vadhvauवध्वः vadhvaḥ
Vocativeवधु vadhuवध्वौ vadhvauवध्वः vadhvaḥ
Accusativeवधूम् vadhūmवध्वौ vadhvauवधूः vadhūḥ
Instrumentalवध्वा vadhवधूभ्याम् vadhūbhyāmवधूभिः vadhūbhiḥ
Dativeवध्वै vadhvaiवधूभ्याम् vadhūbhyāmवधूभ्यः vadhūbhyaḥ
Ablativeवध्वाः vadhvāḥवधूभ्याम् vadhūbhyāmवधूभ्यः vadhūbhyaḥ
Genitiveवध्वाः vadhvāḥवध्वोः vadhvoḥवधूनाम् vadhūnām
Locativeवध्वाम् vadhvāmवध्वोः vadhvoḥवधुषु vadhuṣu

Two additional examples of nouns ending in ī: gurvī (meaning "female Guru") guru, and devī (meaning "goddess"):

Gurvī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeगुर्वी gurvīगुर्व्यौ gurvyauगुर्व्यः gurvyaḥ
Vocativeगुर्वि gurviगुर्व्यौ gurvyauगुर्व्यः gurvyaḥ
Accusativeगुर्वीम् gurvīmगुर्व्यौ gurvyauगुर्वीः gurvīḥ
Instrumentalगुर्व्या gurvगुर्वीभ्याम् gurvībhyāmगुर्वीभिः gurvībhiḥ
Dativeगुर्व्यै gurvyaiगुर्वीभ्याम् gurvībhyāmगुर्वीभ्यः gurvībhyaḥ
Ablativeगुर्व्याः gurvyāḥगुर्वीभ्याम् gurvībhyāmगुर्वीभ्यः gurvībhyaḥ
Genitiveगुर्व्याः gurvyāḥगुर्व्योः gurvyoḥगुर्वीणाम् gurvīṇām*
Locativeगुर्व्याम् gurvyāmगुर्व्योः gurvyoḥगुर्वीषु gurvīṣu

Devī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeदेवी devīदेव्यौ devyauदेव्यः devyaḥ
Vocativeदेवि deviदेव्यौ devyauदेव्यः devyaḥ
Accusativeदेवीम् devīmदेव्यौ devyauदेवीः devīḥ
Instrumentalदेव्या devदेवीभ्याम् devībhyāmदेवीभिः devībhiḥ
Dativeदेव्यै devyaiदेवीभ्याम् devībhyāmदेवीभ्यः devībhyaḥ
Ablativeदेव्याः devyāḥदेवीभ्याम् devībhyāmदेवीभ्यः devībhyaḥ
Genitiveदेव्याः devyāḥदेव्योः devyoḥदेवीनाम् devīnām
Locativeदेव्याम् devyāmदेव्योः devyoḥदेवीषु devīṣu

* In the declension of gurvī, the original ending "īnām" of the Genitive plural changed to "īṇām" due to the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.

This kind of feminine nouns can also appear at the end of compounds which are used in the masculine gender2Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 107, §227. For example, the masculine noun bahuśreyasī means "a man who has many auspicious qualities", and has the normal feminine noun śreyasī as its last member. Likewise, there is the noun aticamū, which has the feminine noun "camū" as its last member and means "(victorious) over armies" or "(one who is) better than an army". In this case, both the masculine and the feminine versions of the noun are identical and are declined the same, just like nadī and vadhū:

Bahuśreyasī (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeबहुश्रेयसी bahuśreyasīबहुश्रेयस्यौ bahuśreyasyauबहुश्रेयस्यः bahuśreyasyaḥ
Vocativeबहुश्रेयसि bahuśreyasiबहुश्रेयस्यौ bahuśreyasyauबहुश्रेयस्यः bahuśreyasyaḥ
Accusativeबहुश्रेयसीम् bahuśreyasīmबहुश्रेयस्यौ bahuśreyasyauबहुश्रेयसीन् bahuśreyasīn
Instrumentalबहुश्रेयस्या bahuśreyasबहुश्रेयसीभ्याम् bahuśreyasībhyāmबहुश्रेयसीभिः bahuśreyasībhiḥ
Dativeबहुश्रेयस्यै bahuśreyasyaiबहुश्रेयसीभ्याम् bahuśreyasībhyāmबहुश्रेयसीभ्यः bahuśreyasībhyaḥ
Ablativeबहुश्रेयस्याः bahuśreyasyāḥबहुश्रेयसीभ्याम् bahuśreyasībhyāmबहुश्रेयसीभ्यः bahuśreyasībhyaḥ
Genitiveबहुश्रेयस्याः bahuśreyasyāḥबहुश्रेयस्योः bahuśreyasyoḥबहुश्रेयसीनाम् bahuśreyasīnām
Locativeबहुश्रेयस्याम् bahuśreyasyāmबहुश्रेयस्योः bahuśreyasyoḥबहुश्रेयसीषु bahuśreyasīṣu

Aticamū (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअतिचमूः aticamūḥअतिचम्वौ aticamvauअतिचम्वः aticamvaḥ
Vocativeअतिचमु aticamuअतिचम्वौ aticamvauअतिचम्वः aticamvaḥ
Accusativeअतिचमूम् aticamūmअतिचम्वौ aticamvauअतिचमून् aticamūn
Instrumentalअतिचम्वा aticamअतिचमूभ्याम् aticamūbhyāmअतिचमूभिः aticamūbhiḥ
Dativeअतिचम्वै aticamvaiअतिचमूभ्याम् aticamūbhyāmअतिचमूभ्यः aticamūbhyaḥ
Ablativeअतिचम्वाः aticamvāḥअतिचमूभ्याम् aticamūbhyāmअतिचमूभ्यः aticamūbhyaḥ
Genitiveअतिचम्वाः aticamvāḥअतिचम्वोः aticamvoḥअतिचमूनाम् aticamūnām
Locativeअतिचम्वाम् aticamvāmअतिचम्वोः aticamvoḥअतिचमूषु aticamūṣu

Monosyllabic feminine bases in ī and ū Jump to top

A monosyllabic base is a base having only one syllable. For example, the feminine nouns dhī (meaning "thought"), and bhū (meaning "earth"). Dhī and bhū are examples of monosyllabic feminine bases. Such nouns take the following endings3Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 103, §224:

Monosyllabic feminine nouns in ī

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeईः īḥइयौ iyauइयः iyaḥ
Vocativeईः īḥइयौ iyauइयः iyaḥ
Accusativeइयम् iyamइयौ iyauइयः iyaḥ
Instrumentalइया iyāईभ्याम् ībhyāmईभिः ībhiḥ
Dativeइये iye
(or) इयै iyai
ईभ्याम् ībhyāmईभ्यः ībhyaḥ
Ablativeइयः iyaḥ
(or) इयाः iyāḥ
ईभ्याम् ībhyāmईभ्यः ībhyaḥ
Genitiveइयः iyaḥ
(or) इयाः iyāḥ
इयोः iyoḥइयाम् iyām
(or) ईनाम् īnām
Locativeइयि iyi
(or) इयाम् iyām
इयोः iyoḥईषु īṣu

Monosyllabic feminine nouns in ū

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeऊः ūḥउवौ uvauउवः uvaḥ
Vocativeऊः ūḥउवौ uvauउवः uvaḥ
Accusativeउवम् uvamउवौ uvauउवः uvaḥ
Instrumentalउवा uvāऊभ्याम् ūbhyāmऊभिः ūbhiḥ
Dativeउवे uve
(or) उवै uvai
ऊभ्याम् ūbhyāmऊभ्यः ūbhyaḥ
Ablativeउवः uvaḥ
(or) उवाः uvāḥ
ऊभ्याम् ūbhyāmऊभ्यः ūbhyaḥ
Genitiveउवः uvaḥ
(or) उवाः uvāḥ
उवोः uvoḥउवाम् uvām
(or) ऊनाम् ūnām
Locativeउवि uvi
(or) उवाम् uvām
उवोः uvoḥऊषु ūṣu

Now, the declensions of dhī (meaning "thought") and bhū (meaning "earth"):

Dhī (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeधीः dhīḥधियौ dhiyauधियः dhiyaḥ
Vocativeधीः dhīḥधियौ dhiyauधियः dhiyaḥ
Accusativeधियम् dhiyamधियौ dhiyauधियः dhiyaḥ
Instrumentalधिया dhiyāधीभ्याम् dhībhyāmधीभिः dhībhiḥ
Dativeधिये dhiye (or) धियै dhiyaiधीभ्याम् dhībhyāmधीभ्यः dhībhyaḥ
Ablativeधियः dhiyaḥ (or) धियाः dhiyāḥधीभ्याम् dhībhyāmधीभ्यः dhībhyaḥ
Genitiveधियः dhiyaḥ (or) धियाः dhiyāḥधियोः dhiyoḥधियाम् dhiyām (or) धीनाम् dhīnām
Locativeधियि dhiyi (or) धियाम् dhiyāmधियोः dhiyoḥधीषु dhīṣu

Bhū (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeभूः bhūḥभुवौ bhuvauभुवः bhuvaḥ
Vocativeभूः bhūḥभुवौ bhuvauभुवः bhuvaḥ
Accusativeभुवम् bhuvamभुवौ bhuvauभुवः bhuvaḥ
Instrumentalभुवा bhuvāभूभ्याम् bhūbhyāmभूभिः bhūbhiḥ
Dativeभुवे bhuve (or) भुवै bhuvaiभूभ्याम् bhūbhyāmभूभ्यः bhūbhyaḥ
Ablativeभुवः bhuvaḥ (or) भुवाः bhuvāḥभूभ्याम् bhūbhyāmभूभ्यः bhūbhyaḥ
Genitiveभुवः bhuvaḥ (or) भुवाः bhuvāḥभुवोः bhuvoḥभुवाम् bhuvām (or) भूनाम् bhūnām
Locativeभुवि bhuvi (or) भुवाम् bhuvāmभुवोः bhuvoḥभूषु bhūṣu

Compounds of monosyllabic feminine bases in ī and ū Jump to top

There are also some compounds that have monosyllabic feminine nouns as their last member. For example: sudhī, which means "having a good mind" and has the monosyllabic feminine noun dhī as its last member; and subhrū, which means "having a good brow" and has bhrū (meaning "brow") as its last member. These nouns can be used as masculine or feminine, the masculine and feminine crude forms are identical, and they take the exact same endings of the monosyllabic feminine bases in ī and ū4Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 105, §226.

Now, the declension tables for sudhī and subhrū. We only show the masculine version, but the feminine version is identical, as we said above:

Sudhī (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुधीः sudhīḥसुधियौ sudhiyauसुधियः sudhiyaḥ
Vocativeसुधीः sudhīḥसुधियौ sudhiyauसुधियः sudhiyaḥ
Accusativeसुधियम् sudhiyamसुधियौ sudhiyauसुधियः sudhiyaḥ
Instrumentalसुधिया sudhiyāसुधीभ्याम् sudhībhyāmसुधीभिः sudhībhiḥ
Dativeसुधिये sudhiye (or) सुधियै sudhiyaiसुधीभ्याम् sudhībhyāmसुधीभ्यः sudhībhyaḥ
Ablativeसुधियः sudhiyaḥ (or) सुधियाः sudhiyāḥसुधीभ्याम् sudhībhyāmसुधीभ्यः sudhībhyaḥ
Genitiveसुधियः sudhiyaḥ (or) सुधियाः sudhiyāḥसुधियोः sudhiyoḥसुधियाम् sudhiyām (or) सुधीनाम् sudhīnām
Locativeसुधियि sudhiyi (or) सुधियाम् sudhiyāmसुधियोः sudhiyoḥसुधीषु sudhīṣu

Subhrū (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसुभ्रूः subhrūḥसुभ्रुवौ subhruvauसुभ्रुवः subhruvaḥ
Vocativeसुभ्रूः subhrūḥसुभ्रुवौ subhruvauसुभ्रुवः subhruvaḥ
Accusativeसुभ्रुवम् subhruvamसुभ्रुवौ subhruvauसुभ्रुवः subhruvaḥ
Instrumentalसुभ्रुवा subhruvāसुभ्रूभ्याम् subhrūbhyāmसुभ्रूभिः subhrūbhiḥ
Dativeसुभ्रुवे subhruve (or) सुभ्रुवै subhruvaiसुभ्रूभ्याम् subhrūbhyāmसुभ्रूभ्यः subhrūbhyaḥ
Ablativeसुभ्रुवः subhruvaḥ (or) सुभ्रुवाः subhruvāḥसुभ्रूभ्याम् subhrūbhyāmसुभ्रूभ्यः subhrūbhyaḥ
Genitiveसुभ्रुवः subhruvaḥ (or) सुभ्रुवाः subhruvāḥसुभ्रुवोः subhruvoḥसुभ्रुवाम् subhruvām (or) सुभ्रूणाम् subhrūṇām*
Locativeसुभ्रुवि subhruvi (or) सुभ्रुवाम् subhruvāmसुभ्रुवोः subhruvoḥसुभ्रूषु subhrūṣu

* In the declension of subhrū, the original ending "ūnām" of the Genitive plural changed to "ūṇām" due to the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.

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