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Declension of nouns ending with vowel:
Regular nouns ending with a, ā, i and u

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Introduction Jump to top

A very large amount of nouns and adjectives in Sanskrit end with vowels (for example, nouns that end in a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, au, ai, ṛ or ṝ). We will show you a different table of endings for each relevant vowel ending. In this chapter, we will cover the declension of regular nouns ending with a, ā, i and u.

In general, for nouns ending with vowel, the process of declension that we will use will be like this: you take the prātipadika (crude/dictionary form of the noun), drop the last vowel, and then add the appropriate ending. For example, to decline the masculine noun aśva (the complete declension table for aśva is shown below), you drop the last vowel, getting aśv as the result. Then, for example, suppose that you want to decline it in the Instrumental singular. As shown in the table below entitled "Endings for masculine nouns ending in a", the ending for the Instrumental singular of a masculine noun is "ena". So, you add "ena" to aśv and obtain aśvena, which is the final result.

The process won't always be as straightforward and described above (but still not too complicated). When you add the ending to the word, a small change in the ending may be necessary due to Sandhi rules. But the cases where it can happen will be covered here.

Let's see the declension of nouns and adjectives ending with a:

Nouns and adjectives ending with a Jump to top

Nouns ending in a can be masculine or neuter (there are no feminine nouns with this ending). Below are the tables of endings for masculine and neuter nouns ending in a:

Endings for masculine nouns ending in a

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअः aḥ auआः āḥ
Vocative a auआः āḥ
Accusativeअम् am auआन् ān
Instrumentalएन enaआभ्याम् ābhyāmऐः aiḥ
Dativeआय āyaआभ्याम् ābhyāmएभ्यः ebhyaḥ
Ablativeआत् ātआभ्याम् ābhyāmएभ्यः ebhyaḥ
Genitiveअस्य asyaअयोः ayoḥआनाम् ānām
Locative eअयोः ayoḥएषु eṣu

Endings for neuter nouns ending in a

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअम् am eआनि āni
Vocative a eआनि āni
Accusativeअम् am eआनि āni
Instrumentalएन enaआभ्याम् ābhyāmऐः aiḥ
Dativeआय āyaआभ्याम् ābhyāmएभ्यः ebhyaḥ
Ablativeआत् ātआभ्याम् ābhyāmएभ्यः ebhyaḥ
Genitiveअस्य asyaअयोः ayoḥआनाम् ānām
Locative eअयोः ayoḥएषु eṣu

As we already described above, to decline a noun ending in a, just drop the final "a" and add the appropriate ending. As an example of masculine noun, below is the declension table of aśva (meaning "horse"). The endings are highlighted in red:

Aśva (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअश्वः aśvaḥअश्वौ aśvauअश्वाः aśvāḥ
Vocativeअश्व aśvaअश्वौ aśvauअश्वाः aśvāḥ
Accusativeअश्वम् aśvamअश्वौ aśvauअश्वान् aśvān
Instrumentalअश्वेन aśvenaअश्वाभ्याम् aśvābhyāmअश्वैः aśvaiḥ
Dativeअश्वाय aśvāyaअश्वाभ्याम् aśvābhyāmअश्वेभ्यः aśvebhyaḥ
Ablativeअश्वात् aśvātअश्वाभ्याम् aśvābhyāmअश्वेभ्यः aśvebhyaḥ
Genitiveअश्वस्य aśvasyaअश्वयोः aśvayoḥअश्वानाम् aśvānām
Locativeअश्वे aśveअश्वयोः aśvayoḥअश्वेषु aśveṣu

As an example of neuter noun, below is the declension table of dāna, meaning "the act of giving":

Dāna (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeदानम् dānamदाने dāneदानानि dānāni
Vocativeदान dānaदाने dāneदानानि dānāni
Accusativeदानम् dānamदाने dāneदानानि dānāni
Instrumentalदानेन dānenaदानाभ्याम् dānābhyāmदानैः dānaiḥ
Dativeदानाय dānāyaदानाभ्याम् dānābhyāmदानेभ्यः dānebhyaḥ
Ablativeदानात् dānātदानाभ्याम् dānābhyāmदानेभ्यः dānebhyaḥ
Genitiveदानस्य dānasyaदानयोः dānayoḥदानानाम् dānānām
Locativeदाने dāneदानयोः dānayoḥदानेषु dāneṣu

So far, so good. Now, as we have said before, there are endings which, in some cases, have to change a little bit when they are added to a word, due to Sandhi rules. To illustrate it, we will show you the declension table of the noun Rāma:

Rāma (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeरामः rāmaḥरामौ rāmauरामाः rāmāḥ
Vocativeराम rāmaरामौ rāmauरामाः rāmāḥ
Accusativeरामम् rāmamरामौ rāmauरामान् rāmān
Instrumentalरामेण rāmeṇa*रामाभ्याम् rāmābhyāmरामैः rāmaiḥ
Dativeरामाय rāmāyaरामाभ्याम् rāmābhyāmरामेभ्यः rāmebhyaḥ
Ablativeरामात् rāmātरामाभ्याम् rāmābhyāmरामेभ्यः rāmebhyaḥ
Genitiveरामस्य rāmasyaरामयोः rāmayoḥरामाणाम् rāmāṇām*
Locativeरामे rāmeरामयोः rāmayoḥरामेषु rāmeṣu

* Notice that the original endings "ena" of the Instrumental singular and "ānām" of the Genitive plural changed respectively to "eṇa" and "āṇām". The reason this happened was due to the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Let us transcribe here the text of this Sandhi rule:

18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi
When "n", comes after "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ", within the same word, is to be obligatorily changed to "ṇ" although a Vowel, a Semivowel (except "l"), a Nasal, a consonant belonging to the Guttural or Labial classes, or "h" comes between the abovementioned letters (i.e. "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" and "ṝ") and "n".

This rule sounds complicated, but it basically means that "n" must be changed to "ṇ" in the following situation: when it comes after "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ" within the same word. But it doesn't need to come "directly" after "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ": if there are "certain" letters between the "n" and the "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ", this Sandhi rule will still apply. These "certain" letters are (reading it from the Sandhi rule): a vowel, a semivowel (except "l"), a nasal, a consonant belonging to the guttural or labial classes, or "h" (if you don't know what are semivowels, nasals, etc., you should consult this table).

Now, we can explain why "ena" and "ānām" changed to "eṇa" and "āṇām" respectively. As you can see, when you add ena to rām to form the Instrumental singular, you produce rāmena. But look at the Sandhi rule: in rāmena, there is an "n" coming after an "r", with "āme" between them. That is, there are two vowels (ā and e) and a consonant belonging to the labial class (m) between them. So, in this situation, the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi applies and the "n" is to be changed to "ṇ". Thus, rāmena becomes rāmeṇa. A very similar process occurs with the Genitive plural ending (ānām), so that rām + ānām = rāmānām becomes rāmāṇām.

This probably sounded complicated, but the other cases that will show up will be very similar to this one.

For another example, below is the neuter noun gṛha, which means "house":

Gṛha (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeगृहम् gṛhamगृहे gṛheगृहाणि gṛhāṇi*
Vocativeगृह gṛhaगृहे gṛheगृहाणि gṛhāṇi*
Accusativeगृहम् gṛhamगृहे gṛheगृहाणि gṛhāṇi*
Instrumentalगृहेण gṛheṇa*गृहाभ्याम् gṛhābhyāmगृहैः gṛhaiḥ
Dativeगृहाय gṛhāyaगृहाभ्याम् gṛhābhyāmगृहेभ्यः gṛhebhyaḥ
Ablativeगृहात् gṛhātगृहाभ्याम् gṛhābhyāmगृहेभ्यः gṛhebhyaḥ
Genitiveगृहस्य gṛhasyaगृहयोः gṛhayoḥगृहाणाम् gṛhāṇām*
Locativeगृहे gṛheगृहयोः gṛhayoḥगृहेषु gṛheṣu

* The original endings "ena" of the Instrumental singular, "āni" of the Nominative/Vocative/Accusative plural and "ānām" of the Genitive plural changed respectively to "eṇa", "āṇi" and "āṇām" due to that same 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. As you can see, all of the endings that have to change have a letter "n", and they are added to gṛh, which has a letter "ṛ" followed by "h"; in other words, the 18th Sandhi Rule of Consonant Sandhi applies.

An additional example (hṛdaya, a neuter noun that means "heart"):

Hṛdaya (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeहृदयम् hṛdayamहृदये hṛdayeहृदयानि hṛdayāni
Vocativeहृदय hṛdayaहृदये hṛdayeहृदयानि hṛdayāni
Accusativeहृदयम् hṛdayamहृदये hṛdayeहृदयानि hṛdayāni
Instrumentalहृदयेन hṛdayenaहृदयाभ्याम् hṛdayābhyāmहृदयैः hṛdayaiḥ
Dativeहृदयाय hṛdayāyaहृदयाभ्याम् hṛdayābhyāmहृदयेभ्यः hṛdayebhyaḥ
Ablativeहृदयात् hṛdayātहृदयाभ्याम् hṛdayābhyāmहृदयेभ्यः hṛdayebhyaḥ
Genitiveहृदयस्य hṛdayasyaहृदययोः hṛdayayoḥहृदयानाम् hṛdayānām
Locativeहृदये hṛdayeहृदययोः hṛdayayoḥहृदयेषु hṛdayeṣu

Despite the fact that hṛdaya has an "ṛ", the original endings "ena" of the Instrumental singular, "āni" of the Nominative/Vocative/Accusative plural and "ānām" of the Genitive plural remain unchanged, unlike the previous example. This is because, when you add the ending to hṛday, there will be a "d" between the "ṛ" and the "n" (for example, in hṛday + ena = hṛdayena). As you can see in the text of the Sandhi rule, "d" is not among the letters that can be between the "n" and the "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ". Therefore, the 18th rule of consonant Sandhi does not apply in this case.

Nouns and adjectives ending with ā Jump to top

Nouns ending with ā can be feminine or masculine. The vast majority of this kind of nouns are the feminine ones, and the masculine ones are not very common.

Three kinds of nouns and adjectives will be shown in this section, and each one has a different table of endings. These kinds are:

1) Regular feminine nouns: the most common kind of noun ending with ā. For example: the name Sītā.

2) Masculine and feminine nouns that have a verbal root that ends with ā as its last member. For example: viśvapā ("protector of the world"), which has the verbal root (which means "to protect") as its last member.

3) Masculine nouns that don't have a verbal root as its last member. For example: the name Hāhā.

Let's take a look at each of these kinds:

1) Regular feminine nouns - Such nouns and adjectives are declined according to the table of endings below:

Endings for feminine nouns ending in ā

SingularDualPlural
Nominative ā eआः āḥ
Vocative e eआः āḥ
Accusativeआम् ām eआः āḥ
Instrumentalअया ayāआभ्याम् ābhyāmआभिः ābhiḥ
Dativeआयै āyaiआभ्याम् ābhyāmआभ्यः ābhyaḥ
Ablativeआयाः āyāḥआभ्याम् ābhyāmआभ्यः ābhyaḥ
Genitiveआयाः āyāḥअयोः ayoḥआनाम् ānām
Locativeआयाम् āyāmअयोः ayoḥआसु āsu

The procedure for applying these endings is the same as for the nouns ending with "a" (that is, drop the final ā and add the appropriate ending). For example, below is the declension of the name Sītā:

Sītā (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeसीता sītāसीते sīteसीताः sītāḥ
Vocativeसीते sīteसीते sīteसीताः sītāḥ
Accusativeसीताम् sītāmसीते sīteसीताः sītāḥ
Instrumentalसीतया sītayāसीताभ्याम् sītābhyāmसीताभिः sītābhiḥ
Dativeसीतायै sītāyaiसीताभ्याम् sītābhyāmसीताभ्यः sītābhyaḥ
Ablativeसीतायाः sītāyāḥसीताभ्याम् sītābhyāmसीताभ्यः sītābhyaḥ
Genitiveसीतायाः sītāyāḥसीतयोः sītayoḥसीतानाम् sītānām
Locativeसीतायाम् sītāyāmसीतयोः sītayoḥसीतासु sītāsu

2) Masculine and feminine nouns derived from verbal roots that end in ā - Nouns and adjectives in this class are declined according to the following table of endings:

Endings for masculine nouns ending in ā

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeआः āḥ auआः āḥ
Vocativeआः āḥ auआः āḥ
Accusativeआम् ām auअः aḥ
Instrumental āआभ्याम् ābhyāmआभिः ābhiḥ
Dative eआभ्याम् ābhyāmआभ्यः ābhyaḥ
Ablativeअः aḥआभ्याम् ābhyāmआभ्यः ābhyaḥ
Genitiveअः aḥओः oḥआम् ām
Locative iओः oḥआसु āsu

For example, below is the declension of the noun viśvapā ("protector of the world"):

Viśvapā (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeविश्वपाः viśvapāḥविश्वपौ viśvapauविश्वपाः viśvapāḥ
Vocativeविश्वपाः viśvapāḥविश्वपौ viśvapauविश्वपाः viśvapāḥ
Accusativeविश्वपाम् viśvapāmविश्वपौ viśvapauविश्वपः viśvapaḥ
Instrumentalविश्वपा viśvapāविश्वपाभ्याम् viśvapābhyāmविश्वपाभिः viśvapābhiḥ
Dativeविश्वपे viśvapeविश्वपाभ्याम् viśvapābhyāmविश्वपाभ्यः viśvapābhyaḥ
Ablativeविश्वपः viśvapaḥविश्वपाभ्याम् viśvapābhyāmविश्वपाभ्यः viśvapābhyaḥ
Genitiveविश्वपः viśvapaḥविश्वपोः viśvapoḥविश्वपाम् viśvapām
Locativeविश्वपि viśvapiविश्वपोः viśvapoḥविश्वपासु viśvapāsu

Some of these nouns whose latter member is a verbal root that ends in ā can also be feminine in gender. For example, viśvapā can be feminine and, in this case, it also means "protector of the world", but referring to a woman. When this kind of noun has a feminine version, the feminine version is declined just like the masculine version. So, the declension table of viśvapā (feminine) is exactly like the masculine version:

Viśvapā (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeविश्वपाः viśvapāḥविश्वपौ viśvapauविश्वपाः viśvapāḥ
Vocativeविश्वपाः viśvapāḥविश्वपौ viśvapauविश्वपाः viśvapāḥ
Accusativeविश्वपाम् viśvapāmविश्वपौ viśvapauविश्वपः viśvapaḥ
Instrumentalविश्वपा viśvapāविश्वपाभ्याम् viśvapābhyāmविश्वपाभिः viśvapābhiḥ
Dativeविश्वपे viśvapeविश्वपाभ्याम् viśvapābhyāmविश्वपाभ्यः viśvapābhyaḥ
Ablativeविश्वपः viśvapaḥविश्वपाभ्याम् viśvapābhyāmविश्वपाभ्यः viśvapābhyaḥ
Genitiveविश्वपः viśvapaḥविश्वपोः viśvapoḥविश्वपाम् viśvapām
Locativeविश्वपि viśvapiविश्वपोः viśvapoḥविश्वपासु viśvapāsu

3) Masculine nouns that don't have a verbal root as its last member - This kind of noun is very rare. An example is the name Hāhā. Below is the declension of Hāhā:

Hāhā (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeहाहाः hāhāḥहाहौ hāhauहाहाः hāhāḥ
Vocativeहाहाः hāhāḥहाहौ hāhauहाहाः hāhāḥ
Accusativeहाहाम् hāhāmहाहौ hāhauहाहान् hāhān
Instrumentalहाहा hāhāहाहाभ्याम् hāhābhyāmहाहाभिः hāhābhiḥ
Dativeहाहै hāhaiहाहाभ्याम् hāhābhyāmहाहाभ्यः hāhābhyaḥ
Ablativeहाहाः hāhāḥहाहाभ्याम् hāhābhyāmहाहाभ्यः hāhābhyaḥ
Genitiveहाहाः hāhāḥहाहौः hāhauḥहाहाम् hāhām
Locativeहाहे hāheहाहौः hāhauḥहाहासु hāhāsu

Nouns and adjectives ending with i and u Jump to top

Bases ending with i and u can be masculine, feminine and neuter. There are many of them, and they are very common. In this section, we are going to show the tables of endings for nouns ending both in i and u paired side-by-side. We have chosen to show the declensions of both kinds of nouns in a single section so that you can see how similar their tables of endings are.

Below are the tables of endings for masculine, feminine and neuter nouns ending in i and u:

Endings for masculine nouns ending in i

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeइः iḥ īअयः ayaḥ
Vocative e īअयः ayaḥ
Accusativeइम् im īईन् īn
Instrumentalइना ināइभ्याम् ibhyāmइभिः ibhiḥ
Dativeअये ayeइभ्याम् ibhyāmइभ्यः ibhyaḥ
Ablativeएः eḥइभ्याम् ibhyāmइभ्यः ibhyaḥ
Genitiveएः eḥयोः yoḥईनाम् īnām
Locative auयोः yoḥइषु iṣu

Endings for masculine nouns ending in u

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeउः uḥ ūअवः avaḥ
Vocative o ūअवः avaḥ
Accusativeउम् um ūऊन् ūn
Instrumentalउना unāउभ्याम् ubhyāmउभिः ubhiḥ
Dativeअवे aveउभ्याम् ubhyāmउभ्यः ubhyaḥ
Ablativeओः oḥउभ्याम् ubhyāmउभ्यः ubhyaḥ
Genitiveओः oḥवोः voḥऊनाम् ūnām
Locative auवोः voḥउषु uṣu

Endings for feminine nouns ending in i

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeइः iḥ īअयः ayaḥ
Vocative e īअयः ayaḥ
Accusativeइम् im īईः īḥ
Instrumentalया इभ्याम् ibhyāmइभिः ibhiḥ
Dativeअये aye
(or) यै yai
इभ्याम् ibhyāmइभ्यः ibhyaḥ
Ablativeएः eḥ
(or) याः yāḥ
इभ्याम् ibhyāmइभ्यः ibhyaḥ
Genitiveएः eḥ
(or) याः yāḥ
योः yoḥईनाम् īnām
Locative au
(or) याम् yām
योः yoḥइषु iṣu

Endings for feminine nouns ending in u

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeउः uḥ ūअवः avaḥ
Vocative o ūअवः avaḥ
Accusativeउम् um ūऊः ūḥ
Instrumentalवा उभ्याम् ubhyāmउभिः ubhiḥ
Dativeअवे ave
(or) वै vai
उभ्याम् ubhyāmउभ्यः ubhyaḥ
Ablativeओः oḥ
(or) वाः vāḥ
उभ्याम् ubhyāmउभ्यः ubhyaḥ
Genitiveओः oḥ
(or) वाः vāḥ
वोः voḥऊनाम् ūnām
Locative au
(or) वाम् vām
वोः voḥउषु uṣu

Endings for neuter nouns ending in i

SingularDualPlural
Nominative iइनी inīईनि īni
Vocative e
(or) i
इनी inīईनि īni
Accusative iइनी inīईनि īni
Instrumentalइना ināइभ्याम् ibhyāmइभिः ibhiḥ
Dativeइने ineइभ्याम् ibhyāmइभ्यः ibhyaḥ
Ablativeइनः inaḥइभ्याम् ibhyāmइभ्यः ibhyaḥ
Genitiveइनः inaḥइनोः inoḥईनाम् īnām
Locativeइनि iniइनोः inoḥइषु iṣu

Endings for neuter nouns ending in u

SingularDualPlural
Nominative uउनी unīऊनि ūni
Vocative o
(or) u
उनी unīऊनि ūni
Accusative uउनी unīऊनि ūni
Instrumentalउना unāउभ्याम् ubhyāmउभिः ubhiḥ
Dativeउने uneउभ्याम् ubhyāmउभ्यः ubhyaḥ
Ablativeउनः unaḥउभ्याम् ubhyāmउभ्यः ubhyaḥ
Genitiveउनः unaḥउनोः unoḥऊनाम् ūnām
Locativeउनि uniउनोः unoḥउषु uṣu

Again, the procedure for applying these endings is simply to drop the final i or u of the noun and apply the appropriate endings from the tables above.

Notice how the tables in each pair of tables are analogous to each other. For example, the masculine Nominative plural ending for i-ending nouns is ayaḥ, and the one for u is avaḥ. Similarly, the masculine Dative singular for i-ending nouns is aye, and the one for u is ave.

Also notice that there are endings which have an additional optional form. For example, in the feminine endings for nouns ending in i, the Dative singular can be aye or yai (thus, for example, the Dative singular of the feminine noun śakti can be śaktaye or śaktyai). Analogously, in the feminine endings for nouns ending in u, the Dative singular can be ave or vai.

Now, we will show you 3 examples of nouns ending in i, for masculine, feminine and neuter, respectively. The examples will be: kavi (meaning "poet"), śakti (meaning "power") and vāri (meaning "water").

Kavi (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeकविः kaviḥकवी kavīकवयः kavayaḥ
Vocativeकवे kaveकवी kavīकवयः kavayaḥ
Accusativeकविम् kavimकवी kavīकवीन् kavīn
Instrumentalकविना kavināकविभ्याम् kavibhyāmकविभिः kavibhiḥ
Dativeकवये kavayeकविभ्याम् kavibhyāmकविभ्यः kavibhyaḥ
Ablativeकवेः kaveḥकविभ्याम् kavibhyāmकविभ्यः kavibhyaḥ
Genitiveकवेः kaveḥकव्योः kavyoḥकवीनाम् kavīnām
Locativeकवौ kavauकव्योः kavyoḥकविषु kaviṣu

Śakti (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeशक्तिः śaktiḥशक्ती śaktīशक्तयः śaktayaḥ
Vocativeशक्ते śakteशक्ती śaktīशक्तयः śaktayaḥ
Accusativeशक्तिम् śaktimशक्ती śaktīशक्तीः śaktīḥ
Instrumentalशक्त्या śaktशक्तिभ्याम् śaktibhyāmशक्तिभिः śaktibhiḥ
Dativeशक्तये śaktaye (or) शक्त्यै śaktyaiशक्तिभ्याम् śaktibhyāmशक्तिभ्यः śaktibhyaḥ
Ablativeशक्तेः śakteḥ (or) शक्त्याः śaktyāḥशक्तिभ्याम् śaktibhyāmशक्तिभ्यः śaktibhyaḥ
Genitiveशक्तेः śakteḥ (or) शक्त्याः śaktyāḥशक्त्योः śaktyoḥशक्तीनाम् śaktīnām
Locativeशक्तौ śaktau (or) शक्त्याम् śaktyāmशक्त्योः śaktyoḥशक्तिषु śaktiṣu

Vāri (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeवारि vāriवारिणी vāriṇī*वारीणि vārīṇi*
Vocativeवारे vāre (or) वारि vāriवारिणी vāriṇī*वारीणि vārīṇi*
Accusativeवारि vāriवारिणी vāriṇī*वारीणि vārīṇi*
Instrumentalवारिणा vāriṇā*वारिभ्याम् vāribhyāmवारिभिः vāribhiḥ
Dativeवारिणे vāriṇe*वारिभ्याम् vāribhyāmवारिभ्यः vāribhyaḥ
Ablativeवारिणः vāriṇaḥ*वारिभ्याम् vāribhyāmवारिभ्यः vāribhyaḥ
Genitiveवारिणः vāriṇaḥ*वारिणोः vāriṇoḥ*वारीणाम् vārīṇām*
Locativeवारिणि vāriṇi*वारिणोः vāriṇoḥ*वारिषु vāriṣu

* In the declension of vāri, there are several endings where the original "n" changes to "ṇ" when they are attached to vār, due to the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. For example, in the Nominative, Vocative and Accusative dual forms, vār + inī = vārinī becomes vāriṇī.

And now, we will show you 3 examples of nouns ending in u, for masculine, feminine and neuter, respectively. The examples will be: guru (meaning "any venerable or respectable person", or the most commonly known meaning of "spiritual preceptor/teacher"), the feminine declension of the adjective mṛdu (meaning "soft") and vastu (meaning "object").

Guru (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeगुरुः guruḥगुरू gurūगुरवः guravaḥ
Vocativeगुरो guroगुरू gurūगुरवः guravaḥ
Accusativeगुरुम् gurumगुरू gurūगुरून् gurūn
Instrumentalगुरुणा guruṇā*गुरुभ्याम् gurubhyāmगुरुभिः gurubhiḥ
Dativeगुरवे guraveगुरुभ्याम् gurubhyāmगुरुभ्यः gurubhyaḥ
Ablativeगुरोः guroḥगुरुभ्याम् gurubhyāmगुरुभ्यः gurubhyaḥ
Genitiveगुरोः guroḥगुर्वोः gurvoḥगुरूणाम् gurūṇām*
Locativeगुरौ gurauगुर्वोः gurvoḥगुरुषु guruṣu

* The original endings "unā" of the Instrumental singular and "ūnām" of the Genitive plural changed respectively to "uṇā" and "ūṇām", again due to the 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.

Mṛdu (feminine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeमृदुः mṛduḥमृदू mṛdūमृदवः mṛdavaḥ
Vocativeमृदो mṛdoमृदू mṛdūमृदवः mṛdavaḥ
Accusativeमृदुम् mṛdumमृदू mṛdūमृदूः mṛdūḥ
Instrumentalमृद्वा mṛdमृदुभ्याम् mṛdubhyāmमृदुभिः mṛdubhiḥ
Dativeमृदवे mṛdave (or) मृद्वै mṛdvaiमृदुभ्याम् mṛdubhyāmमृदुभ्यः mṛdubhyaḥ
Ablativeमृदोः mṛdoḥ (or) मृद्वाः mṛdvāḥमृदुभ्याम् mṛdubhyāmमृदुभ्यः mṛdubhyaḥ
Genitiveमृदोः mṛdoḥ (or) मृद्वाः mṛdvāḥमृद्वोः mṛdvoḥमृदूनाम् mṛdūnām
Locativeमृदौ mṛdau (or) मृद्वाम् mṛdvāmमृद्वोः mṛdvoḥमृदुषु mṛduṣu

Vastu (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeवस्तु vastuवस्तुनी vastunīवस्तूनि vastūni
Vocativeवस्तो vasto (or) वस्तु vastuवस्तुनी vastunīवस्तूनि vastūni
Accusativeवस्तु vastuवस्तुनी vastunīवस्तूनि vastūni
Instrumentalवस्तुना vastunāवस्तुभ्याम् vastubhyāmवस्तुभिः vastubhiḥ
Dativeवस्तुने vastuneवस्तुभ्याम् vastubhyāmवस्तुभ्यः vastubhyaḥ
Ablativeवस्तुनः vastunaḥवस्तुभ्याम् vastubhyāmवस्तुभ्यः vastubhyaḥ
Genitiveवस्तुनः vastunaḥवस्तुनोः vastunoḥवस्तूनाम् vastūnām
Locativeवस्तुनि vastuniवस्तुनोः vastunoḥवस्तुषु vastuṣu

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