Szanszkrit eszközök

Declension of nouns ending with consonant:
Nouns with two and three bases:
Nouns ending with "at"

Contents

← Back to main page


Introduction Jump to top

In the previous chapter, we began to discuss the declension of nouns ending in consonant that have two bases and three bases. As we said there, these nouns have different bases that are used in different sets of endings. In this chapter, we are going to discuss nouns ending in "at". As you will see, there are several kinds of nouns ending in "at".

General case endings Jump to top

For convenience, we are going to repeat the table of general case endings from the previous chapter here. The Aṅga endings are marked with one asterisk (*), the Pada endings are marked with two asterisks (**) and the Bha endings are not marked:

Endings for nouns with two and three bases

MasculineSingularDualPlural
Nominative and VocativeNo ending * au *अः aḥ *
Accusativeअम् am * au *अः aḥ
Instrumental āभ्याम् bhyām **भिः bhiḥ **
Dative eभ्याम् bhyām **भ्यः bhyaḥ **
Ablativeअः aḥभ्याम् bhyām **भ्यः bhyaḥ **
Genitiveअः aḥओः oḥआम् ām
Locative iओः oḥसु su **
NeuterSingularDualPlural
Nom./Acc./Voc.No ending ** ī i *
The rest is like the masculine ones

Present participles ending in "at" Jump to top

The first kind of noun/adjective ending in "at" that we are going to talk about are the present participles.

The declension rule of present participles ending in "at" is complicated, because it depends on a knowledge of verb conjugation. A present participle is an adjective derived from a verb, like "being" in English is derived from "to be". Its meaning is similar to the "ing" termination in English. For example, in Sanskrit, the verb bhū means "to be / to become", and its present participle is bhavat, which means "being / becoming". Similarly, the verb ad means "to eat", and its present participle is adat, which means "eating".

The complicated part is that the declension of present participles depends on the class (also called gaṇa or house) of the original verb. For example, bhū is a verb of the 1st class. On the other hand, ad is a verb of the 2nd class. Therefore, there is a very slight difference on the declensions of their present participles (bhavat and adat).

All the participles ending in "at" have two bases: one ending in "at", and one ending in "ant". For example, adat has two bases: adat and adant, and, similarly, bhavat has two bases: bhavat and bhavant. In order to decline them, you have to take an ending from the table of endings above and attach it to the appropriate base.

The "at" or "ant" base is chosen according to the rule below:

1) If the original verb is not in the class 1, 4 or 10: the "ant" base is used in the Aṅga cases (that is, the masculine Nominative/Vocative singular/dual/plural and Accusative singular/dual, and the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative plural), while the remaining cases use the "at" base1Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 82, §182.

2) If the original verb is in the class 1, 4 or 10: just like the previous case, except that the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative dual also use the "ant" base2Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 83, §183.

The rule above is complicated, but the only difference is in the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative dual. In the first case, the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative dual uses the "at" base, and, in the second case, it uses the "ant" base. To illustrate it, let's look at two examples: adat ("eating") and bhavat ("being"):

Adat (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअदन् adanअदन्तौ adantauअदन्तः adantaḥ
Vocativeअदन् adanअदन्तौ adantauअदन्तः adantaḥ
Accusativeअदन्तम् adantamअदन्तौ adantauअदतः adataḥ
Instrumentalअदता adatāअदद्भ्याम् adadbhyāmअदद्भिः adadbhiḥ
Dativeअदते adateअदद्भ्याम् adadbhyāmअदद्भ्यः adadbhyaḥ
Ablativeअदतः adataḥअदद्भ्याम् adadbhyāmअदद्भ्यः adadbhyaḥ
Genitiveअदतः adataḥअदतोः adatoḥअदताम् adatām
Locativeअदति adatiअदतोः adatoḥअदत्सु adatsu

Adat (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअदत् adatअदती adatīअदन्ति adanti
Vocativeअदत् adatअदती adatīअदन्ति adanti
Accusativeअदत् adatअदती adatīअदन्ति adanti
Instrumentalअदता adatāअदद्भ्याम् adadbhyāmअदद्भिः adadbhiḥ
Dativeअदते adateअदद्भ्याम् adadbhyāmअदद्भ्यः adadbhyaḥ
Ablativeअदतः adataḥअदद्भ्याम् adadbhyāmअदद्भ्यः adadbhyaḥ
Genitiveअदतः adataḥअदतोः adatoḥअदताम् adatām
Locativeअदति adatiअदतोः adatoḥअदत्सु adatsu

Adat falls into the first case of the rule, because its original verb (ad) is in the class 2. Notice that the Aṅga cases use the base adant, and the remaining cases use adat, just as the rule stated.

Also notice that, in the masculine Nominative/Vocative singular, the strong base adant by itself (attached to no ending) becomes adan. This is to obey the 3rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi, which says, among other things, that a Sanskrit word can't end with two consonants.

Now, let's look at the masculine and neuter declensions of bhavat ("being"):

Bhavat (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeभवन् bhavanभवन्तौ bhavantauभवन्तः bhavantaḥ
Vocativeभवन् bhavanभवन्तौ bhavantauभवन्तः bhavantaḥ
Accusativeभवन्तम् bhavantamभवन्तौ bhavantauभवतः bhavataḥ
Instrumentalभवता bhavatāभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भिः bhavadbhiḥ
Dativeभवते bhavateभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भ्यः bhavadbhyaḥ
Ablativeभवतः bhavataḥभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भ्यः bhavadbhyaḥ
Genitiveभवतः bhavataḥभवतोः bhavatoḥभवताम् bhavatām
Locativeभवति bhavatiभवतोः bhavatoḥभवत्सु bhavatsu

Bhavat (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeभवत् bhavatभवन्ती bhavantīभवान्ति bhavānti
Vocativeभवत् bhavatभवन्ती bhavantīभवान्ति bhavānti
Accusativeभवत् bhavatभवन्ती bhavantīभवान्ति bhavānti
Instrumentalभवता bhavatāभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भिः bhavadbhiḥ
Dativeभवते bhavateभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भ्यः bhavadbhyaḥ
Ablativeभवतः bhavataḥभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भ्यः bhavadbhyaḥ
Genitiveभवतः bhavataḥभवतोः bhavatoḥभवताम् bhavatām
Locativeभवति bhavatiभवतोः bhavatoḥभवत्सु bhavatsu

Bhavat falls into the second case of the rule, because its original verb (bhū) is in the class 1. The declension pattern is almost the same as that of adat, except in the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative dual, which is bhavantī instead of bhavatī.

Again, notice that, in the masculine Nominative/Vocative singular, the strong base bhavant by itself (attached to no ending) becomes bhavan, to obey the 3rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi, which says, among other things, that a Sanskrit word can't end with two consonants.

Note: The feminine forms of the present participles in "at" are identical to the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative singular form. Therefore, the feminine form of adat ("eating") is adatī, and the feminine form of the noun bhavat ("being") is bhavantī. As should be expected, these feminine versions are simply regular feminine nouns ending with ī, and are declined like nadī. For more information about how they are declined, go to the chapter about normal feminine bases in ī and ū.

The noun mahat Jump to top

The noun mahat, which means "big", is very similar to adat in declension; the only difference is that it uses the strong base mahānt in the Aṅga cases, except in the Vocative singular, where it is mahant3Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 86, §184. Below is its declension:

Mahat (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeमहान् mahānमहान्तौ mahāntauमहान्तः mahāntaḥ
Vocativeमहन् mahanमहान्तौ mahāntauमहान्तः mahāntaḥ
Accusativeमहान्तम् mahāntamमहान्तौ mahāntauमहतः mahataḥ
Instrumentalमहता mahatāमहद्भ्याम् mahadbhyāmमहद्भिः mahadbhiḥ
Dativeमहते mahateमहद्भ्याम् mahadbhyāmमहद्भ्यः mahadbhyaḥ
Ablativeमहतः mahataḥमहद्भ्याम् mahadbhyāmमहद्भ्यः mahadbhyaḥ
Genitiveमहतः mahataḥमहतोः mahatoḥमहताम् mahatām
Locativeमहति mahatiमहतोः mahatoḥमहत्सु mahatsu

Mahat (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeमहत् mahatमहती mahatīमहान्ति mahānti
Vocativeमहत् mahatमहती mahatīमहान्ति mahānti
Accusativeमहत् mahatमहती mahatīमहान्ति mahānti
Instrumentalमहता mahatāमहद्भ्याम् mahadbhyāmमहद्भिः mahadbhiḥ
Dativeमहते mahateमहद्भ्याम् mahadbhyāmमहद्भ्यः mahadbhyaḥ
Ablativeमहतः mahataḥमहद्भ्याम् mahadbhyāmमहद्भ्यः mahadbhyaḥ
Genitiveमहतः mahataḥमहतोः mahatoḥमहताम् mahatām
Locativeमहति mahatiमहतोः mahatoḥमहत्सु mahatsu

As always, notice that, in the masculine Nominative/Vocative singular, the strong base mahānt by itself (attached to no ending) becomes mahān.

Note: The feminine form of mahat is mahatī, identical to the neuter Nominative/Accusative/Vocative singular form, and is declined like a normal feminine noun ending with ī.

Nouns ending in mat and vat Jump to top

Nouns ending in mat and vat are very common in Sanskrit. For example, agnimat (which means "having fire") and jñānavat (which means "having knowledge").

In the declension of nouns ending in mat and vat, the final "at" becomes "ant" in the Aṅga cases, except in the masculine Nominative singular, where it becomes ant4Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 84, §187.

Now, let's see the declension of agnimat ("having fire"):

Agnimat (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअग्निमान् agnimānअग्निमन्तौ agnimantauअग्निमन्तः agnimantaḥ
Vocativeअग्निमन् agnimanअग्निमन्तौ agnimantauअग्निमन्तः agnimantaḥ
Accusativeअग्निमन्तम् agnimantamअग्निमन्तौ agnimantauअग्निमतः agnimataḥ
Instrumentalअग्निमता agnimatāअग्निमद्भ्याम् agnimadbhyāmअग्निमद्भिः agnimadbhiḥ
Dativeअग्निमते agnimateअग्निमद्भ्याम् agnimadbhyāmअग्निमद्भ्यः agnimadbhyaḥ
Ablativeअग्निमतः agnimataḥअग्निमद्भ्याम् agnimadbhyāmअग्निमद्भ्यः agnimadbhyaḥ
Genitiveअग्निमतः agnimataḥअग्निमतोः agnimatoḥअग्निमताम् agnimatām
Locativeअग्निमति agnimatiअग्निमतोः agnimatoḥअग्निमत्सु agnimatsu

Agnimat (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeअग्निमत् agnimatअग्निमती agnimatīअग्निमन्ति agnimanti
Vocativeअग्निमत् agnimatअग्निमती agnimatīअग्निमन्ति agnimanti
Accusativeअग्निमत् agnimatअग्निमती agnimatīअग्निमन्ति agnimanti
Instrumentalअग्निमता agnimatāअग्निमद्भ्याम् agnimadbhyāmअग्निमद्भिः agnimadbhiḥ
Dativeअग्निमते agnimateअग्निमद्भ्याम् agnimadbhyāmअग्निमद्भ्यः agnimadbhyaḥ
Ablativeअग्निमतः agnimataḥअग्निमद्भ्याम् agnimadbhyāmअग्निमद्भ्यः agnimadbhyaḥ
Genitiveअग्निमतः agnimataḥअग्निमतोः agnimatoḥअग्निमताम् agnimatām
Locativeअग्निमति agnimatiअग्निमतोः agnimatoḥअग्निमत्सु agnimatsu

And now, the declension of jñānavat ("having knowledge"):

Jñānavat (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeज्ञानवान् jñānavānज्ञानवन्तौ jñānavantauज्ञानवन्तः jñānavantaḥ
Vocativeज्ञानवन् jñānavanज्ञानवन्तौ jñānavantauज्ञानवन्तः jñānavantaḥ
Accusativeज्ञानवन्तम् jñānavantamज्ञानवन्तौ jñānavantauज्ञानवतः jñānavataḥ
Instrumentalज्ञानवता jñānavatāज्ञानवद्भ्याम् jñānavadbhyāmज्ञानवद्भिः jñānavadbhiḥ
Dativeज्ञानवते jñānavateज्ञानवद्भ्याम् jñānavadbhyāmज्ञानवद्भ्यः jñānavadbhyaḥ
Ablativeज्ञानवतः jñānavataḥज्ञानवद्भ्याम् jñānavadbhyāmज्ञानवद्भ्यः jñānavadbhyaḥ
Genitiveज्ञानवतः jñānavataḥज्ञानवतोः jñānavatoḥज्ञानवताम् jñānavatām
Locativeज्ञानवति jñānavatiज्ञानवतोः jñānavatoḥज्ञानवत्सु jñānavatsu

Jñānavat (neuter)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeज्ञानवत् jñānavatज्ञानवती jñānavatīज्ञानवन्ति jñānavanti
Vocativeज्ञानवत् jñānavatज्ञानवती jñānavatīज्ञानवन्ति jñānavanti
Accusativeज्ञानवत् jñānavatज्ञानवती jñānavatīज्ञानवन्ति jñānavanti
Instrumentalज्ञानवता jñānavatāज्ञानवद्भ्याम् jñānavadbhyāmज्ञानवद्भिः jñānavadbhiḥ
Dativeज्ञानवते jñānavateज्ञानवद्भ्याम् jñānavadbhyāmज्ञानवद्भ्यः jñānavadbhyaḥ
Ablativeज्ञानवतः jñānavataḥज्ञानवद्भ्याम् jñānavadbhyāmज्ञानवद्भ्यः jñānavadbhyaḥ
Genitiveज्ञानवतः jñānavataḥज्ञानवतोः jñānavatoḥज्ञानवताम् jñānavatām
Locativeज्ञानवति jñānavatiज्ञानवतोः jñānavatoḥज्ञानवत्सु jñānavatsu

The noun bhavat meaning "you" Jump to top

In the beginning of this chapter, we showed you the noun bhavat meaning "being" (the participle present of the verb bhū). But the word bhavat can also have another meaning: it is often used in place of the second person pronoun, as a polite way of saying "you" (something like "your honor")5Müller, "A Sanskrit grammar for beginners", p. 85, §188. When bhavat means "your honor", it is declined differently from the participle present bhavat meaning "being": it is declined just like a noun ending in vat (which we just talked about).

Below is the declension of the masculine noun bhavat meaning "your honor":

Bhavat (masculine)

SingularDualPlural
Nominativeभवान् bhavānभवन्तौ bhavantauभवन्तः bhavantaḥ
Vocativeभवन् bhavanभवन्तौ bhavantauभवन्तः bhavantaḥ
Accusativeभवन्तम् bhavantamभवन्तौ bhavantauभवतः bhavataḥ
Instrumentalभवता bhavatāभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भिः bhavadbhiḥ
Dativeभवते bhavateभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भ्यः bhavadbhyaḥ
Ablativeभवतः bhavataḥभवद्भ्याम् bhavadbhyāmभवद्भ्यः bhavadbhyaḥ
Genitiveभवतः bhavataḥभवतोः bhavatoḥभवताम् bhavatām
Locativeभवति bhavatiभवतोः bhavatoḥभवत्सु bhavatsu

Note: The feminine form of bhavat meaning "your honor" is bhavatī (and not bhavantī, which is the feminine form of the bhavat when it means "being").

Top ↑